Posted in chemistry, science

The perfume conundrum – why it smells different on different people

I’m sure you’ve noticed that perfume never smells the same on any two people, a fact that can be jolly frustrating when you’re out shopping for a new scent. Something that smells divine in the bottle or when worn by a friend can easily seem cloying and repugnant once applied to your skin. So, why do these variations occur?

Well. As you would expect, it all begins in the nose. Our sense of smell is dependent on a small patch of specialised olfactory sensory neurons located high up in the nasal cavity. This patch is called the olfactory epithelium, and it is covered by a carpet of olfactory receptors. On average, humans tend to have around 450 different types of olfactory receptor, each capable of binding to a wide array of odour molecules. Unlike conventional receptors which only bind to one type of thing, olfactory receptors can be activated by many different molecules (and each molecule can activate many different receptors). Each molecule/receptor combination binds in a slightly different way, and these differences provide us with our nuanced sense of smell. In fact, your sense of smell is probably better than you think – researchers at Rockefeller University have found that humans are capable of detecting over one trillion individual scents.

Due to natural variation, different people have a different number and combination of olfactory receptors. This leads to different experiences of smell. Someone could find the aroma of patchouli in a perfume overpowering, whilst another may not be able to detect the scent at all. Whilst this difference in interpretation is certainly a part of the puzzle, it doesn’t explain why the same perfume smells different on different people. Don’t worry – I’m getting to that bit.

As you may know, each individual has a unique ‘skin chemistry’. This is influenced by a great deal of factors ranging from temperature, humidity and sweat composition to the types of medication you’re taking and the range of aromatic herbs in your diet. In some circumstances, your skin chemistry can alter by the hour. When you apply perfume, the naturally occurring chemicals on your skin mingle with those present in the perfume, creating a subtly different scent. The environment you’re in can also influence your perception of a smell – sampling a perfume in someone’s bedroom will often be an entirely different experience to testing a new brand at your local shop.

Along with the influence of your skin chemistry, the time after application can also have an impact on your perception of a perfume or cologne. Each concoction tends to be made up of three different ‘notes’ – top, middle and base. The top notes are the ones you smell immediately after application (their small and volatile structures evaporate easily and float straight towards the nose). The middle notes are next, emerging after around two hours due to their larger molecular weight. The base notes are the last to appear, a good five hours after initial application. They are the largest molecules, so require prolonged exposure to body heat in order to evaporate.

So, here we are. After a bit of discussion, it seems like the differences in perfume experience are due to a wide range of factors. Not only does your individual nose play a part, but so does the garlic bread you had for lunch and the weather that day. Pretty pot-luck, eh?

Tabitha Watson

Image Credit: [http://mac.h-cdn.co/assets/15/51/980×490/landscape-1450470504-best-perfume.jpg]

 

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