‘Uncanny Valley’ is the name of the phenomenon whereby a humanoid object bearing a near-identical resemblance to a human being arouses a deep sense of unease or revulsion in the viewer. Coined by the robotics professor Masahiro Mori in 1970, the original hypothesis states that as the appearance of a robot is made more human, the emotional response to the robot increasingly positive right up until it reaches a threshold where the response swiftly shifts to strong feelings of revulsion and eeriness. It’s safe to say that the majority of us have experienced this phenomenon – examples can be found in almost all genres of entertainment, including films, games, toys and animations. So, why do we experience this response?
Sexual objectification is defined as the act of treating a person as a mere object of sexual desire, characterised by a focus on the individual’s physical appearance over their mental state. Sadly, this phenomenon is widespread in society, and the fact that objectified individuals are often judged to be less human, less competent and less moral has been associated with many negative social consequences.
In a recent study, Italian and Austrian researchers investigated how behavioural responses towards an individual change as a function of how much the individual is sexually objectified. To quantify this, the brain level response of 36 participants (19 female, 17 male) was assessed with functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) imaging whilst the researchers elicited a series of positive and negative emotions using a computer controlled task which involving either inclusion or exclusion.
Ever since the unexpected ‘leave’ vote in the 2016 Brexit referendum, people have been searching for explanations. A myriad of reasons have been postulated, including the role of a voter’s age, gender or level of education. Others have considered whether the ‘Leave Campaign’ may have mobilised an increase in xenophobic attitudes by inciting a fear of foreigners.
In order to try and gain some insight, a group of researchers from institutions across the UK, Poland and Portugal conducted a study to measure the effect of xenophobia on voting behaviour. Unsurprisingly, they found that the belief that immigrants to the UK threaten the country was strongly related to the tendency to vote in favour of Brexit – regardless of age, gender or education level.
It’s official – when it comes to feeling loved, actions really do speak louder than words. Well, at least according to scientists at Penn State University.
“Whether we feel loved or not plays an important role in how we feel from day to day,” says Saeideh Heshmati, a postdoctoral research scholar at Penn State. “We were curious about whether the majority of Americans could agree about what makes people feel loved on a daily basis, or if it was more personal thing. Our results show that people do agree, and the top scenarios that came back weren’t necessarily romantic. So, it is possible for people to feel loved in simple, everyday scenarios.”
Forty years after the release of his hit single ‘Sex & Drugs & Rock & Roll’, Ian Dury has been proven – at least partially – correct. Contrary to previous scientific thought, a recent study by researchers at Stanford University has indicated that frequent use of marijuana may increase sexual desire and performance.
Although a causal connection between marijuana and sexual activity is yet to be definitively established, the authors believe that the results strongly hint at it. “The overall trend we saw applied to people of both sexes and all races, ages, education levels, income groups, every health status, whether they were married or single and whether or not they had kids,” said Michael Eisenberg, MD, the lead author of the study.
Using over ten years of neighbourhood price data, researchers at Drexel University have found that smokers are twenty percent more likely to quit if the price of cigarettes is increased by a dollar.
Currently, smoking remains the largest cause of preventable deaths and disease in the world. Due to this, the finding that increased cigarette prices were associated with a higher rate of smoking cessation is significant as it suggests that cigarette taxes may be an effective lever for successful behaviour change.
Just as people display their emotions through body language and behaviour, your emotional state can now be detected using your Instagram account.
Researchers at the University of Vermont and Harvard University have shown that machine learning algorithms can successfully detect depression from Instagram photos. Currently, the computerised method has a success rate of 70%, a vast improvement on the 42% achieved by general practice doctors diagnosing in-person.
According to researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder, similarly-aged spouses tend to have happier marriages.
Since 2001, data from 7,682 Australian households has been collected using the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. Due to the length of the study and the sheer number of participants, data analysis has unearthed several distinct trends in marriage satisfaction over time.